Greece made a historic decision to become the first country in the Orthodox world to legalize same-sex marriage despite resistance from Church officials.

With major changes in laws and norms surrounding the issue of same-sex marriage and the rights of LGBT people around the world, public opinion on the acceptance of homosexuality in society remains sharply divided by country, region, and economic development.

Orthodox Christians consider the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches to be incorrect in some teachings.

The Orthodox Church believes the Holy Spirit "proceeds from God the Father," while for Catholics and Protestants, the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and the Son."

Orthodoxy remains largely confined to Europe unlike the other two large branches of Christianity (Roman Catholicism and Protestantism), which have spread throughout the developing world.

 There are 14 Orthodox-majority countries in the world.

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Center-right Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis won support from a cross-party majority of 176 lawmakers out of 300 for the bill.

It also granted parental rights to same-sex couples while excluding gay men from acquiring biological children through surrogacy within Greece.

Polls indicate narrow support for the reform, but it has not deeply divided the country, which is more preoccupied with economic concerns.

Critics, including the Church of Greece, have raised concerns over the potential expansion of surrogacy rights and have cited traditional family values as the basis for their objections. Meanwhile, Mitsotakis has stressed the importance of visibility and protection of marginalized individuals.

 Despite facing opposition from conservative groups and politicians, Mitsotakis' government is expected to weather the storm with minimal political fallout.

However, the government still faces significant challenges from other socio-economic issues in the broader landscape.

Legalizing this type of marriage is to ensure human rights, equality between sexual orientations and reduce discrimination in society as argued by supporters.

As of 2024 same-sex marriage is legal in 35 countries.